Brain MRI done at VGH for neurosurgeon and  photos of  brain/personal injury lawyers in Vancouver & Victoria, BC

Rose Keith, over 20 years experience as Vancouver ICBC  personal injury claims, car accidents lawyer - click for her  website Bruce Lemer, over 30 years personal  ICBC Injury claims disputes trial experience in Metro Vancouver, office on Howe Street, across the street from the Supreme Court building - downtown Vancouver
Rose Keith, downtown Vancouver, Personal Injury lawyer for TBI brain injuries, pain and suffering, orthopedic problems etc. Rose Keith, JD, 20+ yrs. experience brain injuries, Vancouver BC Sandra Banister, Q.C. Sandra Banister, QC, 30+ yrs. brain injuries experience, Vancouver BC

Lorenzo Oss-Cech, brain injury / personal injury  claims), estate litigation</span> injury, brain injury, ICBC disputes Victoria lawyer

Ms. Barri Marlatt, LLB,personal injury, brain injury, ICBC disputes Victoria lawyer

Victoria, BC
Lorenzo Oss-Cech, BSc LLB

Barri Marlatt, LLB
Victoria BC
Michael  O'Connor, QC, Queen's Counsel -  experienced personal injury, e.g  brain injury - ICBC claims lawyer in downtown Victoria
Michael Mark, personal injury, icbc claims lawer
Charlotte Salomon, BA JD QC, ICBC claims for car accidents causing personal injury -  lawyer in downtown Victoria, BC - CLICK FOR MORE INFO
Victoria, BC
Michael O'Connor, QC,

Michael Mark, BA LLB

Charlotte Salomon, QC Victoria, BC

Understanding Tort Compensation:  Brain Injury Compensation in BC motor vehicle accidents

Rose Keith, Vancouver personal injury lawyer writes about helmets and head injury protection article

This paper by Rose Keith, JD, experienced brain injury lawyer, considers compensation that may be available for an individual who has suffered an acquired brain injury following a motor vehicle accident. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of brain injury. The principles described below are equally applicable to any traumatic event that results in injury and for which compensation from the party at fault may be sought.

Part 7 v. Tort

There are 2 separate and distinct sources of compensation that may be available to an individual injured in a motor vehicle accident in British Columbia.  Those at Part 7 benefits and tort compensation.

The Part 7 or no fault compensation is available to the individual regardless of who is at fault for the motor vehicle accident. These benefits are paid by the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia ("ICBC"). The Part 7 benefits are an insurance type of compensation, with strictly defined entitlements and limitations on what is available.

Tort compensation refers to when the individual seeks compensation from the party who is at fault for the injury. Tort compensation compensates the individual for what has been lost due to the injury. The goal of tort compensation is to put the injured person as close as possible to the position that he or she was in prior to the injury through monetary compensation. This article will focus on understanding tort compensation.

Tort -- What's Available

The purposes of a tort award is to put the injured party in the position that he or she would have been in had they not been the victim of another party's negligence.  The first prerequisite to a tort award is that another party must be at least partially at fault for the injury.  Recoverable compensation is dependent upon the level of fault of the other party.  For example, if the other party is found to be only 30% at fault for an injury, compensation will be limited to 30% of the amount found to be necessary to return him to the position that he was prior to the accident.

There are 5 different areas under which compensation may be awarded. They are as follows:

   1.  Non pecuniary damages
   2.  Past wage Loss
   3.  Future Wage Loss
   4.  Special damages`
   5.  Future care

1.  Non-pecuniary Damages

The purpose of non pecuniary damages is to compensate the individual for the pain suffering and loss of enjoyment of life that they have suffered as a result of the negligence of another.  The Supreme Court of Canada has described non pecuniary damages as a means of providing solace to the individual for the loss of enjoyment of life that they have experienced as a result of injury.  The purpose of the non-pecuniary award is to allow the substitution of other sources of satisfaction for those that have been lost.  The money awarded is intended to be used by the individual to make his or her life more bearable and to provide reasonable solace for his intangible losses.

In British Columbia we have standardized jury instructions which are given by a judge to a jury to assist them in assessing damages in a personal injury case.  The standardized jury instructions regarding non-pecuniary damages provides an excellent description of this type of damages and the way that the jury is directed to assess the value to be placed in the loss of enjoyment of life.  Those jury instructions are as follows:

Non-pecuniary losses are personal injury losses that have not required an actual outlay of money. The purpose of such an award is to compensate the plaintiff for such things as pain, suffering, disability, inconvenience, disfigurement, loss of enjoyment of life, and loss of expectation of life.  The award should compensate the plaintiff both for such losses suffered up to the date of trial and for those he or she will suffer in the future.

2.  Past Wage loss

The amount awarded for non pecuniary damages contemplates that the individual may continue to suffer a loss of enjoyment of life due to his injury following the trial.  Non pecuniary damages are awarded to compensate the individual for the loss of all the intangibles that result from an injury.  Assessment of this loss requires an assessment of what the individual was like prior to the injury and what his life more likely than not would have been like had he not suffered the injury.  This is then contrasted with what the individual's life has been like since the injury and what his life is likely to be like in the future.

This award is to compensate the individual for loss of income that he otherwise would have earned if he had not been injured. This is based upon a comparison of what would have been earned had the individual not been injured, and what has been earned, up to the date of assessment, whether that be at trial or through settlement. Assessment of past loss of income involves an assessment of what the past would have held, but for the injury, on a balance of probabilities. The question considered by a trier of fact is "but for the accident and injury, what income would the plaintiff have earned?"  There must be proof both of causation and of the loss itself.  In other words, the plaintiff has to prove that it is because of the injury that he has earned less than he would have earned if he had not been injured.

3.  Future loss of income

This award is to compensate the individual for loss of earnings after the date of assessment of loss.  This is often characterized as a loss of opportunity to earn income, or a loss of capacity to earn income.  The purpose of this award again is to put the individual in the position he would have been in if he had not been injured.  Damages may be awarded if the court finds that there is a real or substantial possibility that the individual will earn less money in the future than he would have, if he had not been injured in the accident.  Damages may also be awarded if a court determines that the individual's ability to earn an income in the future may be compromised, regardless of whether this translates into actually earning less money in the future.  If it is demonstrated that the injury has the potential to impact on the individual's ability to earn money in the future, putting the person in the position that he would have been in had he not been injured requires compensation for this loss of income earning capacity.

The consequences of an acquired brain injury can be devastating to an individual's ability to be competitively employed.  The Brain Injury Association of American lists the following as consequences of brain injury:

    i. short term memory loss;
    ii. long term memory loss;
    iii. slowed ability to process information;
    iv. trouble concentrating or paying attention for periods of time;
    v. difficulty keeping up with a conversation;
    vi. other communication problems such a word finding;
    vii. spatial disorganization;
    viii. organizational problems;
    ix. impaired judgment;
    x. inability to multi task;
    xi. lack of initiating activities;
    xii. difficulty concluding tasks without assistance;
    xiii. seizures;
    xiv. muscle spasticity;
    xv. vision problems including blindness and double vision;
    xvi. loss of smell or taste;
    xvii. speech impairments such as slow or slurred speech;
    xviii. headaches or migraines;
    xix. fatigue and increased need for sleep;
    xx. balance problems;
    xxi. increased anxiety;
    xxii. depression;
    xxiii. mood swings;
    xxiv. impulsive behaviour;
    xxv. more easily agitated; and
    xxvi. egocentric behaviours, difficulty seeing how behaviours can affect others.

Each of these consequences on their own would impair an individual's ability to earn an income. Any of these in combination could result in a significant negative impact on income earning ability.

The terms mild, moderate and severe do not necessarily reflect the level of impairment of an individual's ability to earn an income. [emphasis added]  An individual with a "mild" brain injury may be totally disabled from working.  Having a "mild" brain injury does not mean that a person will have "mild" problems.

CLICK HERE to continue reading this article brain-injury-compensation-part2.html

Rose Keith, experienced ICBC injury settlements lawyer with staff fluent in Hindi, Punjabi, Armenian and Russian - click for more information

the above article is by Rose Keith, JD brain injury lawyer and former President of Trial Lawyers Association of B.C.

Articles by brain injury / personal injury lawyers:

Rose Keith, experienced ICBC injury settlements lawyer with staff fluent in Hindi, Punjabi, Armenian and Russian - click for more information click for Rose Keith talking about brain injury litigation

Rose Keith has over 20 years experience in ICBC injury disputes settlements - working with clients with soft tissue, whiplash, fractures, and traumatic brain injuries.  She is also experienced with Medical Malpractice and Employment Law. 

Home & hospital meetings available. 

Call for consultation

1486 West Hastings St., Vancouver, BC V6G 3J6
Phone: 604.800.4319
Toll Free: 888.893.6134
Web site:
Rose Keith, Metro Vancouver personal injury, ICBC settlements for whiplash to brain injury disputes lawyer stands in front of Coal Harbor area of downtown Vancovuer where her office is located

See her articles:

slip and fall caution floor signs in Vancouver supermarket with Rose  Keith, personal injury lawyer photo  CLICK TO ARTICLE on slip and fall injuries

click to article

Bruce Lemer, over 30 years ICBC personal injury claims disputes for children and adults e.g whiplash, spine and brain TBI injuries - trial experience in Metro Vancouver,

Bruce Lemer, LLB

Over 30 years as an ICBC injury claims lawyer - Bruce Lemer has represented people throughout B.C. with a wide variety of serious motor vehicle injuries.  His clients have received settlements or judgements for:

  • catastrophic brain injuries: read article,
  • quadriplegia: read article,
  • peripheral nerve injuries,
  • whiplash and other soft tissue injuries: read article,
  • eye injuries,
  • burns and scarring and
  • psychiatric injuries.

An experienced personal injury lawyer is necessary to ensure you obtain appropriate damages for your injury, care and lost earnings.

Bruce is also experienced with: Motorbike accidents, Medical malpractice-negligence Bruce Lemer, 30 years experience with medical malpractice, professional negligence cases click for more info & Consumer class actions e.g. Red Cross tainted blood class action

Bruce Lemer, downtown Vancouver, BC, Personal Injury, ICBC insurance claims,  medical malpractice, pioneer Canada Red Cross tainted blood class actions lawyer, Home & hospital meetings are available

Bruce W. Lemer,
210-900 Howe St.
Vancouver BC
Canada V6Z 2M4

Get in touch with us right away by calling 604.642.6363

Sandra Banister, Q.C. 30+ years experience in personal injury plaintiff's lawyer for ICBC settlements including brain injuries, fractures, spine injuries, quadreplegia, paraplegia, pain and suffering, click to  more info.

Sandra Banister, Q.C.

Sandra has 30+ years experience as personal injury plaintiff's lawyer for ICBC settlements.  She is also well known as a labour & employment lawyer.

"Sandra has practiced labour law and civil litigation (with an emphasis on employment and personal injury law) for over 30 years...

Sandra regularly appears at the British Columbia Court of Appeal, the British Columbia Supreme Court, labour arbitrations, the British Columbia Labour Board, and the Human Rights Tribunal. She has also appeared before the Quebec Court of Appeal, the Quebec Superior Court and the Manitoba Queen’s Bench."

Experienced with MVA injuries involving cars, motorbikes & cyclists, resulting in brain injuries, spine injuries, paraplegia, quadriplegia, bone fractures, and soft tissue injuries including whiplash etc.

Banister and Company,
#670 - 355 Burrard St. ( The Marine Building ) Vancouver, BC, V6C 2G8

Phone: 604.662.7276 
Toll-Free: 1.877.662.7276
Web site:

Greg Calder, downtown, Hornby St. Vancouver ICBC claims fr. whiplash spianl and brain personal injuries lawyer with Jeffery &  Calder


Experienced with plaintiffs' only ICBC Personal Injury Cases since 1986. 

"He has handled claims involving:
- brain injury
- death,
- amputations,
- paralysis,
- fractures and soft tissue injuries
arising from a wide variety of circumstances such as:
- swimming pool accidents,
- car crashes,
- falling objects,
- assaults,
- professional negligence,
- skiing accidents,
- slips and falls and
- injuries that have occurred as a result of faulty products." (quote 2012.10.28)

See his profile at

Jeffery and Calder
601-815 Hornby Street,
Vancouver, B.C.  V6Z 2E6
Tel:  604-669-5534.

Reference information about "Acquired Brain Injury" and Service Organizations supporting rehabilitation and research in B.C., Canada and USA acquired-brain-injury-basics.html

Other Metro Vancouver Personal Injury Lawyers

Vancouver, West Broadway Office Near VGH Hospital

Philip Wiseman, JD - ICBC injury disputes lawyer - 2 blocks fr. Vancouver General Hospital offices over 25 years experience Elliot Holden , in Nov. 2013, joins Z. Philip Wiseman and Stuart Davies in  personal injury law firm  2 blocks from Vancouver General Hospital Emergency Dept. entrance, photo

Z. Phillip Wiseman, JD, ICBC injury claims - law office 2 blocks from Vancouver General Hospital (VGH)

Injured in a car accident? Feeling alone?  Unsure what to do?

ICBC is interested in giving you as little as possible.  ICBC does not represent your interests once you are hurt in an accident and will pressure you into taking an unjust settlement.  You need someone on your side to ensure your rights are respected and you get a fair settlement.

For more than 25 years, Vancouver personal injury lawyer Z. Philip Wiseman has been helping clients get the compensation they deserve - his team have the experience to help you.

We offer services in many languages, including: English, Cantonese, Mandarin, Polish, Vietnamese & Korean.
Our team includes assistants fluent in Mandarin and Cantonese  wokring with our personal injury lawyers - CLICK TO CHINESE LANGUAGE PROFILE for Mandarin and Cantonese readers 中 文

#401 - 777 West Broadway,
Vancouver, BC V5Z 4J7 
Tel:  604.873.8446
Web: Lawyers-BC Profile: Z. P. Wiseman

由Philip Wiseman大律師辦理超過36年豐富經驗、 擅長於辦理個人損傷索償、 同時亦精於辦理汽車意外、 因有人疏忽而導致之滑倒受傷、 以及有關行人、 巴士及的士個案操華語經驗顧陪同律師與閣下豬個案、 查詢請聯絡: Z。 Philip Wiseman Law Corporation曹金芳Kim Tao( 廣東語) 《 Personal Injury Lawyers》 604-873-8446 Cel: 778-288-5191( 晚上及周末) # 401-777 West Broadway, Vancouver, BC.

Other lawyers:  SURREY, BC & Metro Vancouver

Dil Gosal,, JD LLM experienced personal injury and criminal defense lawyer, fluent in Punjabi, serves Surrey and Metro Vancouver Dil Gosal, BA, JD, LLM

ICBC injury claims lawyer & Criminal Defense Lawyer
Dil's practice includes:  personal injury, ICBC claims disputes, DUI impaired driving, dangerous driving, & criminal negligence driving charges in BC & Washington State.  Legal training includes a Master of Laws Degree fr. New York State University.

Dil is fluent in English and Punjabi.

Cross-Border Lawyer Dil Gosal is licensed as criminal defense and personal injury attorney in Washington State & in BC.  See GosalLaw com eg. on DUI / IRP Roadside Suspension Appeals Lawyer or assault charges
Grandview Corners Offices
250, 2411-160th Street,
South Surrey, B.C.
Canada, V3W 3A8
Tel:  604.719.1360


Web Site:

Also serving
Surrey, BC

N.B. Lawyers see also reference article 6 trial decisions in 2006 that considered quantum of damages for individuals that had suffered a brain injury.  The quantum of non-pencuniary damages awarded ranged from $110,000 to $275,000

Comments on ICBC insurance rates increases announced late 2017 - and rationale for increased costs passed on to car insurance - - read article comment by Rose Keith, JD brain/personal injury lawyer and former President of BC Trial Lawyers Association; article is ICBC-blames-lawyers-for-increasing-rates-R-Keith2017a.html

  • Insurance Corporation of BC Web Site:
    Car & Motorbike Insurance

  • Work place Injuries covered by WCB , Workers' Compensation Board of BC

© 2017.08.28 - photos of lawyers and their content used with permission of the lawyers listed above
This site updated 2018.02.20